The religious and traditional Israeli Jewish population is on the rise, while the secular population is shrinking. Over the last few years, studies have shown that the number of Israelis who do not observe religious traditions has decreased, comprising only one-fifth of the total Israeli population. This is in contrast to earlier days when 41 percent of Israelis declared themselves secular (1974). Approximately one-third of the general Israeli population considers itself fully observant and the number of traditional Israelis has risen from 38 percent to about 50 percent (2).
This should make us think. While it is true that the increased observance among Israelis is not always for genuine and healthy reasons, and often goes hand in hand with extreme political views, it cannot be denied that within the next 50 years Israel will probably see an enormous growth in Jewish pride and religious commitment.
As a matter of fact, it is well known that a greater number of secular Israelis would like to become more observant. However, for various practical reasons, or due to social pressures, they are unable to make this switch.
One of the great challenges, if not the greatest, is Shabbat, the only official day of rest in Israeli society when people enjoy visiting their parents and friends who live far away or who may be in hospital. Many would love to go to a restaurant and enjoy an afternoon ride through neighborhoods in Yerushalayim or other cities. But none of this is possible without the use of cars or taxis and with no open restaurants.
Here are some suggestions to overcome these obstacles:
According to one of the greatest halachic Sephardic authorities, the righteous Rabbi Yosef Chayim of Baghdad (circa 1832-1909), also known as the Ben Ish Chai, there is no prohibition against riding a bicycle on Shabbat; that is, when carrying is halachically permitted, through the use of an eiruv (a symbolic wall around a city or part of a city), which is found in almost every city in Israel. In his opinion, all objections to riding a bicycle on Shabbat are highly questionable. The three most quoted reasons mentioned are: 1) shema yetaken mana –if the bicycle breaks down, there is concern that the rider may repair it; 2) it is considered one of uvdin de-chol – weekday activities, which are not in the spirit of Shabbat; and 3) mar’it ayin – an act that is permitted but might be confused with something else that is definitely forbidden.
According to the Ben Ish Chai, these objections have no halachic foundation. Firstly, he says, “There are numerous items vulnerable to breakage that we would have to prohibit” and “we should not issue new decrees that weren’t made by the Rabbis of the Talmud” (3). Secondly, riding a bicycle is not considered a weekday activity (4). And thirdly, the mar’it ayin argument does not apply, since no one can confuse riding a bike with riding other vehicles such as cars or even horses and wagons, which are inherently different (5) (6).
This is why members of the Syrian Orthodox Community in Brooklyn ride bicycles on Shabbat to the synagogue, to visit their parents, or just to get around the neighborhood.
In Israel, permitting the use of bicycles on Shabbat would greatly increase Shabbat observance among those who now drive cars to visit their parents and friends. Once they know that they could take the bike, many would be delighted to become shomrei Shabbat. Perhaps specific paths for bike riders could be designated for Shabbat so as to prevent accidents. Special Shabbat bikes should be available, which can’t go more quickly than a certain speed, are decorated with beautiful colors, and have a halachically permitted Shabbat light to indicate that this is not an ordinary bike. Religious neighborhoods could decide not to permit this in their own localities.
There is little doubt that this would result in fewer cars on the road and a wonderful atmosphere of nation-wide tranquility, which Israelis encounter on Yom Kippur. It would also allow people to walk in the middle of the road on Shabbat, which would become a national joy. Our psychologists, environmentalists and physicians will surely encourage such a novelty, even though they may lose some business!
Now that Yerushalayim has introduced the light rail, and many other cities may follow suit, it might be a good idea to consider a “Shabbat tram,” which would have a special service to the various hospitals. This will no doubt require considerable technical, innovative and halachic thinking to ensure that Shabbat is not violated, but in an age of unprecedented major scientific breakthroughs, it should not be so difficult to overcome all obstacles. We can leave it to the great inventors at the Zomet Institute in Alon Shvut, Gush Etzion.
Obviously, these trams should run infrequently in order not to spoil the Shabbat atmosphere in the streets. They should be colorfully decorated with flowers and Shabbat themes, have comfortable seats, and drinks available. They should travel more slowly than on weekdays and be free of charge. We should not ask non-Jews to operate these trams – it is time to stop the “Shabbos goy” phenomenon in modern Israel! We must make sure that we can run it ourselves, making use of several halachic leniencies and innovations.
Finally, I wonder whether it would be possible to open some restaurants on Shabbat, especially in the less religious neighborhoods. Such restaurants would be fully Shabbat observant, where people could get a drink and a piece of cake free of charge and have the opportunity to meet their friends. Bnei Akiva and other youth organizations should take an active role in running such cafés. They could become a place for communal singing, lectures, debates and other religious-cultural activities on Shabbat. Perhaps setting an MP3 player on a Shabbat clock could provide nice and relaxing Jewish music in the background.
Large American and Israeli companies should finance such initiatives, and people could pop in during the week to donate some money to the restaurant they visited, or they could pay in advance if they so desired.
It is, however, especially important that we do not lose sight of the spiritual aspect of Shabbat, which is a day that protests against the bustling commerce and the profanity of our lives. It must save us from the agitation and passion of acquisitiveness and the betrayal of our spiritual needs.
Israel greatly needs traditional Shabbat observance before it falls victim even more to the idolization of ourselves and our physical needs. We must therefore make sure that all the above suggestions go hand in hand with a call for more spirituality and authentic religiosity. These suggestions should not be seen as an attempt to seek leniencies for the sake of leniencies. The goal must be more genuine Shabbat observance and immense joy of the day.
It was the great Jewish American psychologist Erich Fromm who wrote: “One might ask if it is not time to re-establish the [traditional] Shabbat as a universal day of harmony and peace, as the human day that anticipates the human future” (7).
We should therefore look for ways by which the less observant can have a greater taste of this breathtaking day, and offer them this opportunity by making it easier for them to participate in its holiness .
- After I wrote my essay Judaism: Thinking Big (TTP 374), which was published in newspapers and journals that were looking for “bold ideas” within Judaism, I was asked to give some practical examples. This is the first essay to do so. Whenever time permits in the coming year, I will try to provide more examples.
- Israel Democracy Institute, Guttman Center, The Jerusalem Post, November 23, 2007. A 2009 study by the IDI, in conjunction with the Avi Chai Foundation, came to a similar conclusion.
- Responsa Rav Pe’alim (1901) 1; 25.
- With many thanks to my dear friend and great halachic authority, Rabbi Moshe Shamah, rabbi of the Sephardic Institute in the Syrian Community of Brooklyn, who brought these sources to my attention. Not all authorities agree with the Ben Ish Chai. For an excellent overview of all opinions, see the Or Hadarom Journal, Volume 6, Summer 5749/1989. Chacham Ovadia Yosef z”l seems to agree with the opinion of the Ben Ish Chai, but out of deference to those rabbis who were not comfortable with this ruling, he suggested that one should refrain from riding a bike. See his Leviyat Chen, 107. See also Kaf HaChayim, Orach Chayim, 404:8. There is much halachic literature on this topic. For more information write to: email@example.com .
- To Have or To Be (London: Abacus, 1979) p. 58.
“Questions to Ponder” by the David Cardozo Think Tank:
- How do you feel about the article’s central proposition: changing the accepted halachic tradition to enable more people to recapture the spirit of Shabbat? Could a Shabbat with bicycles, a tram and time-switch music still be Shabbat? Would it achieve its intention?
- The “Shabbos goy” was traditionally a way of adding a little religious leeway to situations where it was not permitted for a Jew to transgress Shabbat, but there were compelling reasons for doing so, such as significant financial loss. In such cases, a non-Jew was trained in advance to understand hints of the task required. The non-Jew was traditionally paid a small sum for his trouble, after Shabbat, and was presumably someone who needed the money. Is this approach justified in your opinion, or should our attitude be that if the action cannot be performed by a Jew we should not benefit from it at all but simply suffer the consequences? Would this work in the modern Jewish State where electricity supply, factories, and other facilities need to operate on Shabbat?
- Is it demeaning to the non-Jew to be asked to do work for the Jew on Shabbat or Yom Tov?
- A related phenomenon is where people who observe a particular chumra (religious stricture) ask a neighbor who does not observe that stricture, to do the act for them. For example, someone who is particular not to open cans of food on Shabbat may ask a neighbor who does not observe that stricture to open a can they forgot to open in advance. In these cases, both the prohibition and the need are usually less compelling. Should people do this, or should they bear the consequences of their chumra? Is it demeaning to the neighbor to make the request?
- In some families, one of the spouses may observe a chumra that affects their ability to, say, help with the children on Shabbat, thus increasing the burden on the other. The rationale may be that they both benefit spiritually from one of them observing the chumra. Does this approach make sense?
- Those of us brought up in countries with a two-day weekend had Sundays for visiting friends and family out of town, museums and galleries, and for family shopping trips and picnics. Would a two-day weekend reduce religious tension in Israel, both between religious and non-religious, and within the religious themselves? Or can Shabbat be tailored to achieve this in a single day?
- If you could change one law of Judaism (in a halachically accepted way), which law would it be, and why?
- Do you feel that the focus of Halacha should be on building the perfect society, or, as the Maharal believed, building the perfect human being? Are these two approaches mutually exclusive?
Brian Cohen says
I empathize with points 1,4(bear consequences), 5, 6, 7 & 8.
Object to 2&3. Similarly I object to use of parev margarine as butter with meat.
Progressive Jew from Pretoria,SA
Michael abrams says
Dear Rabbi Cardoza
a really bold and thought provoking idea. The real point aims at the opportunity of allowing more people the experience of ‘Shabbat Shalom’ !!
The critics will say ‘ conservative..reform..a slippery slope!!’
But putting your whole idea into practice would be creating a society of real worth and a true spirit of Shabbat observance!
Regards and thanks,
Michael A…… Birmingham UK
Chuneh Avrhum Singer says
I recall wrestling this issue with a rav some 30+ years ago.
If bicycles were a publicly-owned commodity one might consider riding a bicycle within the eruv or on Yom Tov — but clearly only for purposes that enhance Shabbos / Yom Tov, for example going to shule.* However, what would one do if their personally owned bicycle broke down? Would they abandon it or be tempted to repair it?
* As an aside, I remain troubled by those who claim that distance from shule is a mitigating factor for their behavior. In most circumstances one makes their own bed, so to speak, by choosing where to live vis a vis proximity to a shule.